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The Multi-faceted Profile of Corticotropin-releasing Factor (CRF) Family of Neuropeptides and of their Receptors on the Paracrine/Local Regulation of the Inflammatory Response

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Christos Tsatsanis, Achille Gravanis, Pavlina D. Avgoustinaki, George Liapakis and Andrew N. Margioris*   Pages 39 - 50 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Background: The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides, CRF and the Urocortins, and their receptors are present not only within the central nervous system but also in the periphery at various locations and at the sites of inflammation where they influence its progress in a complex local / paracrine manner.

Objective and Methods: This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the regulation of inflammatory process by CRF family of neuropeptides and receptors with a special sight into their role in inflammatory pain and in chronic low grade inflammation that occurs in obesity. For this purpose, we searched for relevant peer-reviewed research articles using bibliographic databases.

Results: The CRF neuropeptides are either produced locally, by components of the inflammatory response or they may reach the inflammation sites via postganglionic sympathetic and sensory afferent nerve transport. It now appears that most immune cells taking part in the inflammatory process express CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1R) and type 2 (CRF2R) and thus represent targets of CRF neuropeptides. Indeed, mast cells, monocytes / macrophages, neutrophils and other types of immune cells express both types of the CRF receptors. In addition to their role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, CRF and its receptors also exert modulatory effects on inflammatory pain. Finally, it now appears that the CRF system is also present in adipose tissue and may play a crucial role in the development of the chronic low grade inflammation, which is characteristic of obesity.

Conclusion: The local effects of the CRF family of neuropeptides can be either pro- or antiinflammatory depending on concentration of each type of neuropeptide present and the ratio of the local expression of their receptors CRF1R and CRF2R.

Keywords:

Corticotropin-releasing factor, inflammation, obesity, adipose tissue, CRF family, CRF1R and CRF2R.

Affiliation:

Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete

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