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Radiation Protection and Mitigation by Natural Antioxidants and Flavonoids: Implications to Radiotherapy and Radiation Disasters

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Rasoul Yahyapour, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Mohsen Cheki, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Bagher Farhood, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Peyman Amini, Hengameh Fallah and Masoud Najafi*   Pages 285 - 304 ( 20 )

Abstract:


Background: Nowadays, ionizing radiations are used for various medical and terroristic aims. These purposes involve exposure to ionizing radiations. Hence, people are at risk for acute or late effects. Annually, millions of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy during their course of treatment. Also, some radiological or nuclear events in recent years pose a threat to people, hence the need for radiation mitigation strategies. Amifostine, the first FDA approved radioprotector, has shown some toxicities that limit its usage and efficiency. Due to these side effects, scientists have researched for other agents with less toxicity for better radioprotection and possible mitigation of the lethal effects of ionizing radiations after an accidental exposure. Flavonoids have shown promising results for radioprotection and can be administered in higher doses with less toxicity. Studies for mitigation of ionizing radiation-induced toxicities have concentrated on natural antioxidants. Detoxification of free radicals, management of inflammatory responses and attenuation of apoptosis signaling pathways in radiosensitive organs are the main mechanisms for radiation protection and mitigation with flavonoids and natural antioxidants. However, several studies have proposed that a combination in the form of some antioxidants may alleviate radiation toxicities more effectively in comparison to a single form of antioxidants.

Conclusion: In this review, we focus on recent findings about natural radioprotectors and mitigators which are clinically applicable for radiotherapy patients, as well as injured people in possible radiation accidents.

Keywords:

Radiation, radioprotector, mitigation, flavonoids, antioxidant, natural antioxidants.

Affiliation:

School of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science (International Campus), Tehran, Department of Radiologic Technology, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science (International Campus), Tehran, Departments of Medical Physics and Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, School of Paramedical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah

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