Fadia A Mayyas*, Ahmad I Aljohmani and Karem H Alzoubi Pages 206 - 215 ( 10 )
Background: Hyperthyroidism promotes the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Aldosterone, a key mediator of myocardial inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis, may be activated in hyperthyroidism.
Objective: To assess the impact of hyperthyroidism on aldosterone levels and myocardial oxidative status, inflammatory and fibrotic markers in hyperthyroid rats, and to test if the use of spironolactone (an aldosterone antagonist) attenuates these changes.
Methods: Adult Wistar rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups; controls, spironolactone treated rats (Spir, 50mg/kg/day), hyperthyroid rats (Hyper, daily intraperitoneal levothyroxine 0.3mg/kg/day), and spironolactone treated hyperthyroid rats (Hyper+Spir) for 4 weeks. Blood pressure (Bp), and levels of serum and myocardial aldosterone, oxidants/antioxidants, inflammatory and fibrotic markers were measured.
Results: Levothyroxine increased serum thyroid hormones and increased Bp, heart rate and heart to bodyweight ratio. Relative to control, serum aldosterone levels were increased in Hyper and Hyper+ Spir groups. In parallel, cardiac lipid peroxides and serum endothelin-1 were increased whereas cardiac superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and matrix metalloproteinase -2 were reduced in the Hyper group. Spironolactone decreased serum thyroid hormones and improved cardiac lipid peroxides and metalloproteinase -2 levels. The use of spironolactone decreased serum nitrite levels and increased cardiac SOD and glutathione. Cardiac levels of aldosterone, endothelin-1, transforming growth factor-beta and nitrite were similar among all groups.
Conclusion: Hyperthyroid status was associated with an increase in aldosterone and oxidant/ inflammatory biomarkers. The use of spironolactone enhanced antioxidant defenses. Aldosterone antagonists may serve as potential drugs to attenuate the development of cardiac disease in hyperthyroidism.
Spironolactone, hyperthyroidism, aldosterone, cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid