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Recent Updates in the Alzheimer’s Disease Etiopathology and Possible Treatment Approaches: A Narrative Review of Current Clinical Trials

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Elahe Zarini-Gakiye, Javad Amini, Nima Sanadgol*, Gholamhassan Vaezi and Kazem Parivar   Pages 273 - 294 ( 22 )

Abstract:


Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most frequent subtype of incurable neurodegenerative dementias and its etiopathology is still not clearly elucidated.

Objective: Outline the ongoing clinical trials (CTs) in the field of AD, in order to find novel master regulators.

Methods: We strictly reviewed all scientific reports from Clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed databases from January 2010 to January 2019. The search terms were “Alzheimer's disease” or “dementia” and “medicine” or “drug” or “treatment” and “clinical trials” and “interventions”. Manuscripts that met the objective of this study were included for further evaluations.

Results: Drug candidates have been categorized into two main groups including antibodies, peptides or hormones (such as Ponezumab, Interferon β-1a, Solanezumab, Filgrastim, Levemir, Apidra, and Estrogen), and naturally-derived ingredients or small molecules (such as Paracetamol, Ginkgo, Escitalopram, Simvastatin, Cilostazo, and Ritalin-SR). The majority of natural candidates acted as anti-inflammatory or/and anti-oxidant and antibodies exert their actions via increasing amyloid-beta (Aβ) clearance or decreasing Tau aggregation. Among small molecules, most of them that are present in the last phases act as specific antagonists (Suvorexant, Idalopirdine, Intepirdine, Trazodone, Carvedilol, and Risperidone) or agonists (Dextromethorphan, Resveratrol, Brexpiprazole) and frequently ameliorate cognitive dysfunctions.

Conclusion: The presences of a small number of candidates in the last phase suggest that a large number of candidates have had an undesirable side effect or were unable to pass essential eligibility for future phases. Among successful treatment approaches, clearance of Aβ, recovery of cognitive deficits, and control of acute neuroinflammation are widely chosen. It is predicted that some FDA-approved drugs, such as Paracetamol, Risperidone, Escitalopram, Simvastatin, Cilostazoand, and Ritalin-SR, could also be used in off-label ways for AD. This review improves our ability to recognize novel treatments for AD and suggests approaches for the clinical trial design for this devastating disease in the near future.

Keywords:

Alzheimer`s disease, clinical trials, dementia, drug interventions, hypothesis, methodology.

Affiliation:

Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zabol, Zabol, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zabol, Zabol, Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran



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