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Exploring Molecular Approaches in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Drug Targets from Clinical and Pre-clinical Findings

Author(s):

Mamtaj Alam, Rajeshwar Kumar Yadav, Elizabeth Minj, Aarti Tiwari and Sidharth Mehan*   Pages 1 - 18 ( 18 )

Abstract:


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease (MND) characterised by the death of upper and lower motor neurons (corticospinal tract) in the motor cortex, basal ganglia, brain stem, and spinal cord. The patient experiences the sign and symptoms between 55 to 75 years of age included impaired motor movement, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, grip loss, muscle atrophy, spasticity and sometimes associated with memory and cognitive impairments. Median survival is 3 to 5 years after diagnosis and 5 to 10% beyond 10 years of age. The limited intervention of pharmacologically active compounds that are used clinically is majorly associated with the narrow therapeutic index. Pre-clinically established experimental models where neurotoxin methyl mercury mimics the ALS like behavioural and neurochemical alterations in rodents associated with neuronal mitochondrial dysfunctions and downregulation of adenyl cyclase mediated cAMP/CREB is the main pathological hallmark for the progression of ALS in central as well in the peripheral nervous system. Despite the considerable investigation into neuroprotection, it still constrains treatment choices to strong care and organization of ALS complications. Therefore, current review specially targeted in the investigation of clinical and pre-clinical features available for ALS to understand the pathogenic mechanisms and to explore the pharmacological interventions associated with up-regulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase/cAMP/CREB and mitochondrial-ETC coenzyme-Q10 activation as a future drug target in the amelioration of ALS mediated motor neuronal dysfunctions.

Keywords:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, adenyl cyclase, motor neuron degeneration, cognitive impairments, mitochondrial coenzyme Q10, methyl mercury, riluzole.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab, Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga-142001, Punjab



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