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Pain Perception and Management: Where do We Stand?

Author(s):

Bilal Afridi, Haroon Khan*, Esra Kupeli Akkol and Michael Aschner   Pages 1 - 11 ( 11 )

Abstract:


Background: Pain is often flammable, sharp and sometimes described as an electrical shock and can be categorized in three different ways as nociceptive, neuropathic and inflammatory. Nociceptive always originates in specific situations like in case of trauma. Neuropathic pain results in the case of nerve damage and inflammatory pain. In inflammatory pain, inflammatory mediators are involved in the sensitization of nociceptors. It is important to control the pain as it affects the individual physically, mentally, and socially.

Objective: Knowing the pain physiopathology and pain pathways, defining the relationship between receptor and transmitter is very important in determining new treatment strategies. In this review, current information on the definitions, classifications, and physiological and chemical mechanisms involved in pain are reviewed.

Methods: Different search engines were used to gather related articles/information. All those journals which are peerreviewed were considered. Additional, books/chapters of standard publishers were also included in the article.

Results: In recent years, with a better understanding of the physiological and chemical mechanisms that play a role in pain, significant improvements have been achieved in the treatment of pain. Various oral or intravenous drugs, local injection treatments, physical and occupational therapy, electrical stimulation, alternative medicine applications, psychological support, and surgical applications are performed in the treatment depending on the severity or the cause of the pain.

Conclusions: The development and renewal of the knowledge about pain physiopathology can be the basis for improving the quality of life of human beings and providing effective and reliable treatments with technological elements developing in the clinical and research field.

Keywords:

Pain pathways, pain perception, pain management, nociception, neurotransmitters, available analgesic, unwanted effects

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan 23200, Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan 23200, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University 06330, Etiler/Ankara, Department of Molecular Pharmacognosy, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10463



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