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MicroRNA Regulation of Androgen Receptor in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Premises, Promises, and Potentials

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 4 ]


Safieh Ebrahimi, Seyed Isaac Hashemy, Amirhossein Sahebkar and Seyed Hamid Aghaee Bakhtiari*   Pages 559 - 569 ( 11 )


Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most frequently used therapeutic strategy in PCa; however, the development of resistance to ADT, known as castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), continues to be a major obstacle against the successful treatment of PCa. The abnormal activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway has been found as one of the main contributing factors to the development of resistance in CRPC. Therefore, AR regulatory strategies are urgently required to combat resistance. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found as major AR regulatory factors affecting ADT resistance. MiRNAs can target AR itself, AR-related genes, AR splice variants, AR-related signaling pathways as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs), and play critical roles in regulating ADT resistance. Due to their capability to affect various genes and signaling pathways, miRNAs are now being studied for their potential role as a new therapeutic target in CRPC. It has been recommended that combination therapies, including miRNAs and existing drugs, can synergistically decrease castration resistance. miRNAs also have prognostic values for ADT, and their expression profiling in CRPC patients before therapeutic scheduling may enable the physician to diagnose patients who are ADT-resistant. Overall, extant evidence obviously supports the predictive and therapeutic potential of miRNAs in CRPC patients. This review summarizes the available information about the microRNA-mediated AR controlling mechanisms involved in ADT resistance.


Prostate cancer, castration-resistance, androgen receptor, microRNA, androgen deprivation therapy, combination therapy.


Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Bioinformatics Research Group, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad

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